How to Start a Fisheries (fish farming) Business in India[Investments Profits]

How to Start a Fisheries (fish farming) Business in India[Investments Profits]

In India, where almost 60 percent of the population prefers consuming fisheries and fish products, fish farming can definitely be considered as one of the most profitable businesses. The term fish farming had originated from the Agrarian language. The moment you need to get stared with this business you need to have access to fresh flowing water system like a river.

India is a country that has numerous water system, including sea, oceans, lakes, rivers and ponds. Without access to any of the above mentioned water system, it is not possible to get started with this system. You need to try and construct an artificial lake or pond system, generally termed as tank that can be used to hold fish in it. You can fill it with water and fish can be kept inside it. Apart from this you also need to get familiar with other set of information related to this business.

Why the need for fish farming?

There certainly are numerous benefits of getting started with fish farming business some of which are stated as below:-

  • One of the most important reasons for getting started with fish farming business is that fish is in great demand not in India but also in other parts of the world.
  • One of the main reasons is that more number of people prefers eating fish and fish products as compared to other meat or animal products. There is much higher demand of fish as source of food due to vitamins and proteins.
  • Within the national and international platform the demand for fish market is also on rise in present time. As per the increasing demand and shortage of supply chain it is obvious that more number of people are shifting towards fish farming as modern traditions.
  • In present time people started to farm fish in small and big tanks at their farm lands or small room. This step has also been taken as there is shortage in supply of certain edible fish in the sea, ocean, and rivers. This is one of the main reasons why more number of people are stepping forward for setting up fish farms.

What is fish farming?

  • Fish farming is the art or technique of breeding fish and taking care of them till they grow and reproduce and maintaining their growing number in the ponds or tanks.
  • Fish farmers have to take care of fish and their number and also take care that they grow in size so they can be sold in the market for profitable price.
  • Apart from this fish farm is a business that also offers you with over ten times more profits as compared to start up amount.

Getting started with fish farming process

To get started with the process of fish farming you have to first get a pond or a tank constructed at your place of work. This tank and pond can be used as a breeding place for any fish type. To construct a tank or a fish pond you may need small piece of land. So it is utmost important to get started with constructing a tank or a pond.

Right spot or place to select for fish farming

  • It is important to make the right selection of the place for constructing fish pond or tank. It is important to maintain right temperature and conditions for breeding fish.
  • You need to keep in mind that temperature plays a major role in growth of growth cycle of the fish as during winter seasons fish do not grow much in size.
  • So it is important to try and construct the fish pond or tank before winter seasons so you can get started with breeding fish in the pond during summer seasons.

Process for design and construction of fish pond

  • There are numerous ways that can be used for construction of pond or tank. If you are looking around for saving your time and money you can also try and purchase ready made tanks made up of plastic material.
  • If you want to construct a pond in the ground itself then you may have to seek help from a professional to dig a big pond. The size in general would depend on the availability of the land at your place.
  • If you are running short of funds then you can also DIY (Do It Yourself) using local handy tools. Once the pond has been dug out you just need to make use of coating mix prepared by bleaching powder and mud.
  • This mix can be prepared along with calcium powder to coat the pond base. This will help in preventing the formation of algae and fungus in the water that can harm fish.

Fish feeds

  • In order to breed fish perfectly it is important that you need to assure that the fish survives to compete its growth cycle. It is also important that the fish should breed naturally.
  • This will help in increase in the number of the fish. So it is important that you need to feed the fish with right type of food. It is important that you have to make the right selection of fish food.
  • The food should be selected depending on the breed of the fish you are having at the farm. You also have to maintain right hygiene and temperature of the water in the pond. This means that on regular basis you will have to test it for salinity and pH.

What fish to breed in the farm?

One of the most important factors to get started with fish farm process is the selection of the right fish breed for farming. You need to keep in mind that it is not possible to breed all types of fish in the farm.

  • In India there is a great demand for certain varieties of fish like Rohu, Mureli, Katla, grey shark and tuna. Apart from this Hisla fish is also in great demand.
  • One of the main benefits of selecting these varieties of fish is that they are easy to breed and can easily get adopted to the climatic and water conditions.
  • So the moment you make a selection of these fishes it is obvious that you may be able to generate health profit from the business. Apart from this it is also possible to easily find these varieties in the Indian market.

Maintenance process

  • When running fish farm business you may have to hire external labors depending on the size of your business. The trained labor is ideal choice who can take care of the fish and pond.
  • It is also important that labor should take care of the fish and its feed. The trained person should be aware of fish diseases and conditions. It is important to make use of potassium permanganate and common salt (Sodium) in case the fish is not well.
  • In case not taken care at the right time then one fish can spread germs and virus to others as well in the pond.

Maintaining water condition

For maintaining good health of the fish and it life, it is important to maintain right condition of the water.

  • You may have to ensure that the water is cleaned at least once a month or week, depending on the size. It is important to maintain the pH level of water between 7 to 8.
  • This is considered as healthy water condition for the fish to survive and breed. So you need to take proper care of it on regular basis.

Equipment s required for Fish Farming

  • Natural or plastic pond– This is one of the most important things that you may need when thinking of fish farming. You can use them as fish tanks of bigger size. It is also ideal for people to get started with this business using tanks in a small room.
  • You can also get it installed at the roof top or in the ground. You can also look around for artificial ponds that are available in the market. The cost factor may depend on quality and size.

Where to purchase materials?

  • It is possible for you to purchase pond (artificial) and tank (Glass / plastic) online. You can purchase it from a retailer or whole seller shop. You just need to see where and who is selling it for cheaper price.
  • You can also order it online at or at you just need to click the links provided.

How to purchase water testing equipments

  • You can directly visit the link at or enquire before purchasing. The equipments will only cost Rs 1500 and are useful for checking with pH and water salinity. Apart from this you may need to install water pump for pumping water which may only cost you around Rs 3000.
  • You have to purchase transparent water pipes as additional accessories. You can make the purchase as per your desired budget. You may also have to invest money in purchasing net for fish so it is easy to remove them when cleaning. It only costs Rs 100 per net.

Types and variants of fish farming

There certainly are numerous ways to help get started with this business plan. The methods that we have included here are most common and affordable. One main benefit is that they don’t cost much at start up.

1          Cage system

  • This method is mainly used in oceans, seas and rivers. So when using this system you may have to work and setup your business nearby to some such system.
  • This is one of the most profitable methods of fish farming. The cost of start up is very low but you may have to install cage in river or sea. But you may have to take your precautions when setting up cage in sea or river bed.

2          Pond system

  • This is one safe method and is very much durable and reliable. You may have to construct a small pond to farm fish. You can also construct it near by to a small river outlet.
  • This is one common method used by most farmers. The initial start up cost may be a bit high but is very much reliable. You may also have to pay attention when using this method as it is done on river bank.

3          indoor method

  • This is a modern method of setting up a fish farm when you can select a small enclose room for getting started. You may have to furnish entire set up in small area and then get started.
  • You may have to take care of most things on your own. You have to check with water temperature and salinity or pH. You may have to install thermometer and other relevant devices in the room.
  • You also need to ensure that the room gets uninterrupted supply of electricity and water so fish are safe.

Benefits of fish farm

  • As per recent survey there are a number of people who are getting involved with this business as per growing demand. You can get to earn consistent income every year. You can target national and international market demand.
  • You may not have to invest big money in start up and you can earn money in initial stage itself. This is best business opportunity in India as fish is in demand. You may not notice down fall of market.

How to get license?

  • It is important to get the business registered in India before starting. You have to get registered by submitting business registration form. You will be provided with registration number.
  • You will have to get registered at government offices. You may have to submit all details related to information about yourself and business. You can also apply for subsidy under government sector for business.
  • If you are looking forward to start up this business in sea or river bank then you may have to take special permission.

Residential fish farm

You can get started at home by investing in small plastic tub or tank. You can get it installed at any place at home roof top or in a closed room. You may have to get NOC from society on account of fish odor. You may have to invest some money in fish food and medicines. You also have to ensure that water is cleaned regularly.

Large and small scale farms

  • To get started at small or large scale you may have to construct a pond at farm land or at home backyard. It all depends on the size and business plan. You may have to work according to your planned budget.
  • You have to ensure that you have sufficient land and open space for constructing pond or tank. You also have to ensure that all guidelines stated above are followed.


In most places in India fish markets areas are very much common. These are places where you can sell your fish produce. You can export fish products in international market. You can approach hotels and restaurants.


Before you dispatch your fish to hotels of consumers you have to ensure that is safely packed. This will ensure that the fish is supplied to consumers end fresh. If you want to export in international market you need to pack it well. You can make use of modern packing systems for packing fish.

Cost factor for start up

The business can be started by investing Rs 30 to 50 thousand. You may have to invest additional money in fish feed, electricity, water, and eggs. This may be equivalent to Rs 1 to 1.5 lakh. In the initial stage you may need over Rs 2 lakh as investment.

Profit margin

It is obvious that if you invest around Rs 1 lakh then you can generate over Rs 3 lakhs as profit margin.  This may also depend on production, marketing and other factors.


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